1. Introduction

1.5 Limitations of the literature

The literature review has provided strong insights regarding key structural elements and processes identified as important to enable Māori learners to do well in tertiary education. However, there is little research or discussion in the literature around the definition of ‘success’ and desired outcomes for Māori in tertiary education.

In practical terms, it is noted that the presence, absence or appearance of these key elements and processes will differ across TEOs in New Zealand, including in terms of different institutional size, organisational kaupapa, number of Māori enrolments, programme focus, and government performance requirements.

Nevertheless, the findings appear well able to be applied across the diverse tertiary sector. Moreover, although the literature is weighted by a focus on university experiences, the common themes that have emerged come together from research situated in diverse tertiary settings.

Most studies simply describe the initiative rather than examining the impact it has had.

Where the literature has identified actual initiatives implemented by TEOs to promote better educational experiences and outcomes for Māori learners, these have been included where relevant in this report. It was intended to identify and summarise such initiatives that have worked well. However, most studies simply describe the initiative rather than examin the impact it has had. This is one limitation of the literature.

It is also recognised that there is likely to be numerous other initiatives implemented and established across TEOs focused on enhancing Māori success which are not referred to in this review. This is because they have not been identified in the recent literature, and not because they have been ignored or are not seen as important or relevant.

Other limitations of the literature review include: